Muslim Women’s Rights

Historical Roots of Intersectional Muslim Feminism

Since the emergence of feminism in the 19th century, there have been efforts to expand the meaning of feminism, which has led to the development of “feminisms.[1]” Feminism as a formal movement first emerged in the 19th and early 20th century primarily by Western women passionate about women’s suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality[2]. By the 1960s, another wave of feminism began in the US, and later spread throughout the Western world[3]. This second wave broadened feminist concerns by including sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive rights and legal inequalities[4].

These movements however highlighted the perspectives of white women and excluded the voice of women of color. One of such groups whose voice has been marginalised by mainstream feminism is Muslim Women[5]. There was thereby a need for Muslim women to articulate an interpretation of women’s rights from their own social location constructed by their race, sexuality, religion and class[6]. Indeed on one hand mainstream feminism excludes Muslim women because of the stereotypes attached to being “Muslim.[7]” One the other hand, Muslim women who challenge patriarchy are viewed as being “dominating, angry and family hating” within many Islamic communities[8].

Women, secular and/or religious, living in Muslim majority communities began to articulate feminism from their particular social locations. This led to the rise of Islamic feminism and Secular feminism in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Secular feminism draws on and is constituted by multiple discourses including secular nationalist, Islamic modernist, humanitarian/human rights, and democratic. Islamic feminism however derives its understanding and mandate from the Qur'an, seeking rights and justice within the framework of gender equality for women and men in the in the totality of their existence[9]. Both Islamic and Secular feminisms however call for the implementation of gender equality in the state, civil institutions, and everyday life within the MENA region[10].

History of Muslim Feminism

Although much focus has been placed on the fights for women’s rights within the West, interpretations of Islam that assert women’s rights have existed since 7th Century CE. Women like, Nana Asma’u- a royal within the Sokoto Caliphate-today northern Nigeria, wrote poems and prose and pushed for the literacy and education of women[11]. In the Middle East, scholars like Fatima al-Fihri, who founded the University of Al Karaouine, played a key role in founding many Islamic educational institutions[12].

With imperialism and colonisation however, reforms to “modernise” the North African and Middle Eastern territories marginalised women’s voices in the public and private spheres[13]. This resulted in the rise of conservative readings of Islam that asserted readings of the Qu’ran that affirmed inequality between women and men. In response, women across the MENA region began to organise within and across religious lines.


From the 19th century, new writing an publishing ventures emerged that promoted women’s empowerment and representation.Indeed, by 1944, the Arab Feminist Conference held in Egypt decided to create a women’s encyclopedia, which was later published as the Encyclopedia of Women in Islamic Culture[14]. Feminist Unions such as the Egyptian Feminist Union, founded by Nabawiyya Musa, were also formed, empowering women to demand “rights and freedom from the oppressive constraints of patriarchal culture.[15]” Muslim women all over the world also began to publish books about intersections between Islam, Women’s rights and the MENA region. Notable amongst these are: al-Sufur wa al-Hijab (Unveiling and Veiling) by Lebanese Nazira Zain al- Din and Qur'an and Woman: Re- reading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective written by African American theologian Amina Wadud[16]. Although these women were critcitized as being "an agent of western imperialism" and as "spoiled by Christian missionary education,” they remained stead fast in their struggle for women’s rights and continue to inspire the many women caught between the intersections of gender discrimination and Islamophobia[17].

As a Transnational Social Justice Movement, the fight for Muslim Women’s rights is currently in its growth stage as networks of individual actors and organizations are building within and across local and national boundaries all in response to discrimination faced globally by Muslim women.

Definition and History

In regards to Muslim Women's Rights, it is important to address the axis of Islamophobia in their oppression as Muslim women. Islamophobia is a term used to describe the fear and hatred that non-Muslims have towards Muslims, their religion (Islam) and their culture. In addition to that, the term encompasses non-Muslims who dislike Muslims culture because they see it as backwards and oppressive. For example, the fact that some Muslim women are not allowed to have access to education and some do not have a choice as to whether or not they want to were a hijab. Lastly, the term also includes the anxiety that Western world has towards Muslim countries because they believe that one day, Muslim countries might become huge economic powers and rule the world. The increase in Islamophobia can be traced after the 9/11 attack that took place in the US and the increase in the number of immigrants and refugees in North America and in Europe.

The origin of the term is still under discourse. However, it is said that the term was first published in Britain, and was used in the context of fear and dislike towards Muslims and their religion (Islam). Yet, before that it was published in France in 1910 but in a different context. As stated before, Islamophobia increased after the 9/11 attack which took place in the United States and because of the increase in Muslim immigrants and refugees in North America and in Europe. The term Islamophobia exists in different languages and shares the same concept, that is, fear and hate towards Muslims, their culture and religion. For instance, in the German language it is know as Islamophobie meaning fear and Islamfeindlichkeit meaning hostility. In French, it is known as Islamophobie and racisme anti-arabe, or racisme anti-maghrébin meaning form of cultural racism for Muslim immigrants in France. Scandinavian countries use Muslimhat meaning hatred to Muslims.[18]

Terms Associated With Islamophobia

  • Anti-Muslimism
  • Anti-Muslim racism
  • Intolerance against Muslims
  • Anti-Muslim prejudice
  • Anti-Muslim bigotry
  • Hatred of Muslims
  • Anti-Islamism
  • Muslimophobia
  • Demonization of Islam
  • Demonization of Muslims [19][20][21][22][23][24]

Criticism of the Term

Most rhetoric about Islamophobia tends to be Western-centric due to the fact that that is where the most polarized incidents of Islamophobia occur. The widespread use of the term launched following the events of 9/11, but Islamophobia is not a new phenomenon and existed long before 9/11, it just was not referred to as such. Pre-9/11 Islamophobia was specified as Orientalism by scholars and characterized the same stereotypes, othering, and caricatures as Islamophobia. [25]

The is no accurate meaning for the term. However, the concept is the same in every country, that is, prejudice, fear and hatred towards Muslims, their culture and religion. People who use the term are trying to acknowledge the presence of the negative energy against Muslims. In 2006, Johannes Kandel wrote that Islamophobia “is a vague term which encompasses every conceivable actual and imagined act of hostility against Muslims."[26]

Xenophobia and Misogyny

Islamophobia and Xenophobia are intricately tied especially in light of the recent humanitarian refugee crisis.[27] Muslim asylum seekers finding refuge in Western and European countries not only face Xenophobia, but also Islamophobia. However, Islamophobia coupled with misogyny means that Muslim women encounter double the harm that comes with Islamophobia.[28] The clothing of Muslim women is often criticized in those countries due to misconceptions from Western-feminist discourse.[29] For example, the hijab is seen as a symbol of oppression from a patriarchal Middle Eastern society, yet this misunderstanding that only serves to demonize Muslim men and force the perception that Muslim women are powerless and require salvation. Muslim women who do and do not wear the hijab generally agree that it is a personal choice whether or not to wear the hijab.[29] In Western and European countries, women in traditional Muslim clothing are also particularly vulnerable in public to violent attacks because of their appearance.[29] There have also been incidents of Muslim women wearing the hijab being pushed in front of incoming trains, punched and kicked off buses, and attacked in places that are supposed to be safe such as schools.[28] Zainab Chaudry, a spokesperson for the Council on American-Islamic Relations, recalled a case where a pregnant Muslim women was out shopping when a man purposefully drove his cart into her belly.[28] Many Muslim families have also been instructing their daughters to remove their headscarves during school hours in order to avoid harassment.[28]

"What's interesting is that when we speak to perpetrators they say they'd never normally attack a woman. But they feel like they can target Muslim women, because they didn't see them as female. They've dehumanized them so much that they can't see their identity in a gendered way anymore. The only thing they see is that they are Muslim." - Fiyaz Mughal [28]

Responses to Islamophobia

Tell MAMA (UK)

Tell MAMA is an grassroots non-governmental UK based organization founded by Fiyaz Mughal that works with the Muslim communities in England, Wales, and Scotland to fight back against anti-Muslim violence. MAMA stands for Measuring Anti-Muslim Attacks. Tell MAMA defines anti-Muslim attacks as "any malicious act aimed at Muslims, their material property or Islamic organisations and where there is evidence that the act has anti-Muslim motivation or content, or that the victim was targeted because of their Muslim identity. This also includes incidents where the victim was perceived to be a Muslim."[30] Their goal is to support victims of anti-Muslim attacks, monitor and record each incident, and persecute the perpetrators.[30] People can submit a report to them via telephone, email, SMS, Facebook, or Twitter including the location of the incident, so the organization can map it and offer support through partnering agencies. By mapping out all the incidences of where anti-Muslim attacks occur, Tell MAMA can work with official authorities in identifying which locations require the most resources to ensure that the communities are efficiently provided with security.

Cultural Impact

Political Tool

The consequences of the gradual mainstreaming of Islamophobia negatively affect Muslim communities all around the world.[31] Islamophobia is also used as a political tool to distinguish the West and Muslim countries who, according to Eurocentric views, disregard democracy and change. Islamophobic rhetoric reduces the Muslims community's diversity into a single issue, generalizes Muslims based on the actions of a few, and misattributes certain actions as being linked to the Muslim faith.[32] Many politicians have used anti-Islam rhetoric to further their campaigns and gain voters.[33] The rise of Islamophobia in Western countries has been steadily increasing since the aftermath of 9/11 during the George Bush presidency. [33] These fears of refugees are completely unfounded since not one of the 750,000 refugees let into America post 9/11 have been linked to a terrorist attack. [31]

2016 American Election

In 2016, president-elect Donald Trump's presidential campaign platform included Islamophobic points such as proposing to ban all Muslims from entering the United States and even declaring that Islam hates America.[33][34] Senator Marco Rubio also advocated the shutting down of mosques, while Ben Carson, a candidate for the 2016 presidential election, stated that a practicing Muslim should not be president.[33] With the American election being a globally observed event, the extensive mainstream media coverage gave way to an increase in Islamophobic hate crimes in 2015 and 2016.[35] Some argue that the affects of Trumps presidency may incite a cultural movement that authorizes violence against Muslim Americans.[35] Perpetrators of islamophobic hate crimes might also target non-Muslim South Asians, due to stereotypes of Muslims and because there are no set phenotypical indicators of what Muslims look like. [36] Many Muslim refugees are fleeing from Syria and face rape, torture, and starvation from smugglers who they have no choice but to travel with on their journey to a safer place.[27] Journalist Lizzie Dearden quotes Kim Clausen, the field coordinator on MSF's Bourbon Argos search and rescue boat, regarding the Western attitude toward refugees:

“I wish I could take every one of these politicians out on a trip to see these people and hear their stories about how they have been raped and tortured and kept as slaves, and how they are fleeing everything around them. Building walls so you don’t see the suffering doesn’t mean it isn’t happening.” [27]

Mental Health Effects

Not only do the effects of Islamophobia manifest in physical harm, but it also puts the victims' mental health at risk. Members of the Muslim community and people perceived to be Muslim, such as Middle Eastern, African, or South Asians non-Muslims, have been subject to murder, physical attacks, verbal harassment, threats, and vandalism.[32] Concluded from a study in 2012, exposure to such incidents causes an increase in anxiety and depression in it's victims.[36] People do not have to directly experience violence to be affected in this manner, even just having awareness of the danger is enough to affect the person's mental health.[36] Additionally, this type of discrimination has brought an increase in bullying among children, as a 2014 study discovered that two-thirds of Sikh children wearing turbans are bullied, and 50% of all Sikh children faced bullying.[36] The effects of bullying can last long into adulthood and can cause severe mental health damage.[36] Mental health professional, Kameelah Rashad, states in an interview that the Muslim community is dealing with emotional disconnect with their feelings of distress because "no one will believe it, no one will tolerate it, no one cares that we're upset."[36] Emotional repression has detrimental psychological effects that cause disorders if prolonged.[36] Muslim women who wear the hijab have a heightened anxiety when in public because their clothing is a visible marker of their faith. They encounter the most Islamophobic street harassment and violence and this is linked to the fact that they are both women and Muslim.[28]

The Fight For Women’s Rights from the Perspective of European Women of Arab/ Islamic Origin

With the war on terrorism beginning in 9/11, there has been a growing discrimination in West against Muslims and more broadly, against persons of Arab origin[37]. This has taken shape in Europe where there are growing nationalist trends and conceptualizations of the citizens that exclude people of color, more specifically, Arabs[38]. Historically however, Europe has had close social, economic and political links with the Middle East and North Africa. Throughout colonization, there had an influx of Arabs into Europe, especially France and Britain which had colonies in the region. In more modern times, the descendants of these Arab immigrants have taken up European citizenship and formed distinct social groups within Europe[39]. The current conceptualization of who is “European,” nonetheless excludes Arab populations, marginalizing Muslim voices and impeding on the rights of Muslim women.

Discrimination against Muslim Women in France

Although France has the largest Muslim population in Europe, it also has some of the most oppressive policies towards Muslim women. In 2009, French President Nicholas Sarkosy was quoted saying that religious face veils are “not welcome” within France. A poll conducted by the Pew Research Institute also confirmed this statement as 80% of French voters supported a ban of Islamic veils[40]. By, 2011, the “Law of 2010-1192: Act prohibiting concealment of the face in public space” was implemented and effectively banned Muslim headscarves in all public places[41].

Muslim women in France however argued that this ban infringed upon their rights and freedoms. Indeed, exactly a year ago, a French national Christiane Ebrahimian, lost her employment contract as a social worker in a hospital because of her choice to wear an Islamic veil[42]. In order to fight for her rights and fight discrimination, Ebrahimian filled an appeal at the European Court of Human Right, but lost the case on the basis that “conspicuous religious symbols” are prohibited by French Law[43].

In the Elite French University, Sciences Po –Paris, Algerian feminist Marieme Helie Lucas a “Hijab Day,[44]” inviting all to wear religious headscarfs in solidarity with oppressed Muslim women all over the world. Interestingly however, Lucas argued that more focus needs to placed on non-veiled Islamic women who are being abused around the world such as the Nigerian girls abducted by Boko Haram and the Iraqi women suffering at the hands of ISIS[45]. It could however be argued that appreciating the rights of non-veiled women, should not devalue the freedoms of veiled women. Particularly, in August 2016, the French police forced a Muslim woman to strip on a public beach, taking away her freedom to dress a way that she deems religiously appropriate[46].

Unfortunately, the French example is not an isolated case. Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and Switzerland between 2011-2016 have also enacted partial-full bans on Islamic headscarves in public places[47].

Germany and the DMK: A Progressive Approach to Islam and Muslim Women?

One could however argue that the German experience challenges the mainstream discourse in Europe around Muslim Minorities and Islamic Women. In the last two decades, a distinct community of German born Muslims has emerged that are organizing to challenge the dominant view of Islam and use Islam to empower women. One of such groups is DMK which stands Deutschsprachiger Muslimkreis Karlsruhe (German-speaking Muslim Circle of Karlsruhe)[48]. DMK aims to facilitate inter-faith discourse on Islam’s place in Modern Europe and specifically, readings of Islam that are deemed gender-discriminatory[49]. As Islamic feminists, DMK interprets the Qu’ran as being pro-women[50]. They however argue that powerful male scholars who were seeking to silence women’s voices have historically subjected the Quran to patriarchal interpretations[51]. Although the DMK does not have offices outside of Germany, it can be viewed as having been formed as a result of a global trend of Muslim women working together to “re-read” the Qu’ran and the Hadith[52]. This began with Feminist Muslim scholars in Egypt such as Amina Wadud, Saba Mahmood and Gayatri Spivak, who in the 1970s began challenging interpretations of the sacred texts that preserved male social privilege.

One could argue that the German government is amongst the most progressive in Europe in regards to its approach to Muslim women[53]. In September 2016, the government funded a UNESCO advertisement that promoted wearing the Islamic Veil as a sign of solidarity with its Muslim community[54]. The advertisement features a blond German lady wearing a colourful headscarf whilst proclaiming "appreciate difference[55]." Indeed, the advert and accompanying policy are problematic because they promotes cultural appropriation while presenting a deceptive western interpretation of how Muslim women and does not address discrimination faced by Muslim. One could however argue that in terms of tolerance and inter-faith understanding, is a step ahead of many other European countries because it demonstrates efforts made by Germany to include Muslim women in mainstream German culture.

The Fight for Muslim Women's Rights within in a North American Scope

Zunera Ishaq and her fight against the Niqab Ban

Canada endorses itself as an accepting and multicultural country through their promotion of an official immigration policy that encourages immigrants to retain their culture in Canada. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms also protects the rights of individuals in Canada to practice their culture and religion. [56] Despite of these policies, the Canadian Government banned the niqab in citizenship ceremonies on December 12 2011. This ban required Muslim women to remove their niqab while they swear their citizenship oaths in front of a public ceremony. As there are no concerns to regards of identification, this ban is a fuelled by the fear or hatred for the niqab or what Western society has constructed it to be; a symbol of the “other” who is “reviled as backward, represented as in need of rescue, or associated with Islamic extremism”. [57]

On January 2015, Zunera Ishaq from Pakistan challenged the niqab ban, stating that the ban violated her religious freedoms. The niqab ban required to remove her niqab in public without reason and refused to make accommodations by holding separate ceremonies with female judges for women with face veils. The government power at that time believed that face veils was an obstruction in identifying new citizens during the oath swearing ceremony and that the ban was an “attempt to make the new citizens follow Canadian norms” [58] This explanation however is invalid as identification can be processed before the ceremony in a private place. The attempt to make new citizens follow “Canadian norms” is also troubling as it contradicts Canada’s multiculturalism policy and the Charter of Rights. The Canadian Charter of Rights states, “everyone has the following fundamental freedoms… of conscience and religion, of thought, belief, opinion and expression”. [56] The niqab ban pushed forth by the Canadian government prohibits the personal and religious freedom of these Muslim women and is an infraction of the Canadian Charters of Rights.

Hip Hop and Face Veils? Smashing Stereotypes Through Dance

Amirah Sackett founded her dance group in 2011. They are a group of passionate Muslim Hip-Hop dancers hoping to break stereotypes through their dance performances. Sackett states her goal is for the public to see "an image of a fully clad, Muslim woman with a niqab or hijab, a face veil, and then making it powerful and beautiful". As she carries two identities, American and Muslim she feels a need to address the common misconceptions about Muslim women, how their faith does not represent their whole identity. Along with empowering dance performances, she also hold Q's+A's sessions after the performance to open up discussion around a highly taboo topic. She is one of the many activists that are joining together in breaking stereotypes about Muslim women by sharing her own life experience.[59]

"Helps them to recognize that Muslim women are very strong, very independent, and we choose to dress this way" -Amirah Sackett


The European migrant crisis emerged in 2015 when an influx of asylum seeking foreign national entrants arrived on the coasts of the EU. Escaping turmoil or conflict in their home region, the top three nationalities of these refugees of the over one million Mediterranean Sea arrivals between 2015 and 2016, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, were Syrian (46.7%), Afghan (20.9%) and Iraqi (9.4%),[60] all overwhelmingly Muslim entrants. Yet what continues to be undermined is the crisis seen and heard through the lens of a Muslim woman. The refugee crisis is a wholly feminist issue. When young girls are being married off at a heartbreakingly young age because it’s seen as their greatest chance of survival; when women are miscarrying on the side of the road in an unfamiliar country; when mothers are forced to send their children unaccompanied on dinghies in the dark, unconvinced they’ll ever see them alive again; when women are reaching the UK and being abused and degraded, or detained while pregnant for the crime of seeking refuge: these are feminist issues.

Research conducted by Amnesty International shows that girl and women refugees are facing sexual and physical violence not only as they cross foreign lands seeking refuge but when they arrive at their destination. [61] According to the UNHCR Policy on Refugee Women, 50% of refugees are women and girls, and many reported that in almost all of the countries they passed through they experienced physical abuse and financial exploitation, being groped or pressured to have sex by smugglers, security staff or other refugees. The conditions of refugees are poor enough to begin with; refugee camps are cramped, and thousands of people are living in extreme poverty, without access to basic needs like electricity and clean water. Yet these conditions for women have become especially normalized as pregnant women are left with little to no resources, mothers that have lost children and suffered stillbirths receive little to no support, toilet facilities were often squalid and women felt unsafe as some sanitary facilities were not segregated by sex. [62]

"After living through the horrors of the war in Iraq and Syria these women have risked everything to find safety for themselves and their children. But from the moment they begin this journey they are again exposed to violence and exploitation, with little support or protection." Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International’s Crisis Response director [28]


Grassroots organizations and government aid are aiming to focus on three aspects of this issue. First, ensure more support in developing countries for refugee women; second, secure safe, legal routes for vulnerable refugee women so that they don’t have to take dangerous journeys at the hands of smugglers; third, take action to protect women and girls from sexual violence and trafficking. And fourth, specifically to the UK government, give refugee women in the UK dignity and a fair hearing. Young women, pregnant women are crossing the borders of war-torn towns because they do not have the resources or the priority to migrate to safe areas.


UNHRC Building, Geneva. By HunNomad. CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

UNHCR is just one of many organizations working around the world to help displaced women and girls and take part in a number of inter-agency fora that address gender issues and sexual violence, such as the UN Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s Sub-Working Group on Gender. The UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict, gathering UNHCR and other UN agencies, was set up to highlight and create awareness of abuses against women and, ultimately, to end sexual violence and make the world safer for women and girls. They work to ease their struggle, ensuring safe shelters that offer privacy, assistance with construction or maintenance, fair food distribution systems and separate sanitation facilities. They also manage programmes that help women to improve their leadership skills, overcome barriers to education, and access opportunities. [63]

Women for Refugee Women

Women for Refugee Women challenges the injustices experienced by women who seek asylum in the UK. Their vision is a society in which women’s human rights are respected and in which they are safe from persecution. Their mission is to ensure that women seeking asylum in the UK are treated with justice and dignity. This UK-based grassroots organization focuses on 3 means of action: influence, empower, change. Women for Refugee Women works directly with women who seek asylum through through English classes, advice, lunch and other projects such as craft and drama. They also support two grassroots groups in London, Women Asylum Seekers Together London and the London Refugee Women’s Forum. Through ground-breaking public events and arts projects, the organization ensures that the experiences of refugee women are heard by wide audiences. Drama, craft and photography projects with refugee women are displayed and collaborated with actresses to tell the stories of women who are locked up in Yarl’s Wood through mainstream media, including press, TV and radio. Research has significantly changed people’s understanding of the experiences of refugee women. Their work has been quoted in both houses of Parliament over the last few years and they work with politicians from all major parties to try to move towards a fairer asylum process. [64]

Set Her Free Campaign

The Set Her Free campaign began to end the detention of women who seek asylum in the UK. Women who come to this country to seek protection can be locked up at any stage of their asylum claim, for any length of time. Detention is unnecessary, expensive and compounds the trauma of vulnerable women. The campaign focuses particularly on Yarl’s Wood Immigration Removal Centre, a detention centre where foreign nationals are held for long periods prior to deportation from the UK. Its occupants are primarily women and children, many of whom came to the UK fleeing torture and abuse, including sexual violence. The controversy of Yarl's Wood surrounds the accounts of abuse and mistreatment of the detainees: pregnant women are locked up for months on end, high rates of self-harm and, most shocking of all, allegations of sexual abuse at the hands of male guards. [65]

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  2. MAYNES, MARY JO. 2004. Introduction: Young women in europe in the era of 'first-wave' feminisms: Analyses of generation and gender. Continuity and Change 19 (3): 343-5.
  3. Evans, Judith, and Ebrary Academic Complete (Canada) Subscription Collection. 1995;2013;. Feminist theory today: An introduction to second-wave feminism. Thousand Oaks, Calif;London;: Sage Publications.
  4. Ibid
  5. Badran, Margot. 2005. Between secular and islamic Feminism/s: Reflections on the middle east and beyond. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 1 (1): 6-28.
  6. Ibid
  7. Ibid
  8. Ibid
  9. Ibid
  10. Ibid
  11. Malami, Hussaini Usman. 2002. One woman's jihad: Nana asma'u, scholar and scribe. Journal of Islamic Studies 13 (1): 109.
  12. Abdul Rashid, Hezreen. 2016. "Fatima Al-Fihri – Founder Of The Oldest University In The World". The Urban Muslim Women.
  13. Badran, Margot. 2005. Between secular and islamic Feminism/s: Reflections on the middle east and beyond. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 1 (1): 6-28.
  14. Badran, Margot. 2005. Between secular and islamic Feminism/s: Reflections on the middle east and beyond. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies 1 (1): 6-28.
  15. Ibid
  16. Ibid
  17. Ibid
  18. Kaya, Ayhan. "Islamophobia". The Oxford Handbook of European Islam.  Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-960797-6
  19. Kaya, Ayhan (2014). "Islamophobia". The Oxford Handbook of European Islam.  ISBN 978-0-19-960797-6.
  20. Carpente, Markus (2013). Diversity, Intercultural Encounters, and Education. p. 65.
  21.  Pande, Rekha (2012). Globalization, Technology Diffusion and Gender Disparity. p. 99.
  22. Raphael Walden. Racism and Human Rights. Page 8
  23. Jørgen S. Nielsen. Muslims in Western Europe. Page 169
  24.  Mateja Sedmak. Children's Voices: Studies of Interethnic Conflict and Violence in European schools, p124
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  37. Salaita, Steven. 2006;2007;. Beyond orientalism and islamophobia: 9/11, anti-arab racism, and the mythos of national pride. CR: The New Centennial Review 6 (2): 245-66.
  38. Ibid
  39. Bommes, Michael, Heinz Fassmann, Wiebke Sievers, DOAB: Directory of Open Access Books, and OAPEN. 2014. Migration from the middle east and north africa to europe: Past developments, current status, and future potentials. Vol. 73. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.
  40. Crosby, Emily. 2014. Faux feminism: France's veil ban as orientalism. Journal of International Women's Studies 15 (2): 46.
  41. Ibid
  42. "France: Court Judgement In Muslim Veil Human Rights Row 2015. Humanrightseurope.Org.
  43. Ibid
  44. Karin, Ekin. 2016. "Algerian Feminists Respond To French 'Hijab Day'". Mail Online.
  45. Ibid
  46. Ibid
  47. "The Islamic Veil Across Europe - BBC News". 2016. BBC News.
  48. Accessed 10 November 2016
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  50. Ibid
  51. Ibid
  52. Ibid
  54. Ibid
  55. Ibid
  56. 56.056.1 Thomas, J. (2015) Only If She Shows Her Face: Canadian Media Portrayals of the Niqab Ban During Citizenship Ceremonies. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 47(2), 187 Retrieved from:
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  58. Singer, C. (n.d.) Canadian Court Rules Niqab Ban Illegal During Citizenship Ceremonies. Retrieved (November 24 2016):
  59. AJ+ (2016) Female Muslim Hip-Hop Dancers Smash Stereotypes. Retrieved from:
  60. "Monthly Arrivals by Nationality to Greece, Italy and Spain". Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response - Mediterranean. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  62. UNHCR: Women. Retrieved on November 27, 2016 from:
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  65. Women for Refugee Women: "Set Her Free Campaign" retrieved from

Post image: Muslim Woman, licensed CC BY-SA 3.0 on Wikimedia Commons